AAVvector-mediated in vivo reprogramming into pluripotency
Authors: Senís E, Mosteiro L, Wilkening S, Wiedtke E, Nowrouzi A, Afzal S, Fronza R, Landerer H, Abad M, Niopek D, Schmidt M, Serrano M, Grimm D
CellNetworks People: Grimm Dirk
Journal: Nat Commun. 2018 Jul 9;9(1):2651. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05059-x.

In vivo reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) holds vast potential for basic research and regenerative medicine. However, it remains hampered by a need for vectors to express reprogramming factors (Oct-3/4, Klf4, Sox2, c-Myc; OKSM) in selected organs. Here, we report OKSM delivery vectors based on pseudotyped Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Using the AAV-DJ capsid, we could robustly reprogram mouse embryonic fibroblasts with low vector doses. Swapping to AAV8 permitted to efficiently reprogram somatic cells in adult mice by intravenous vector delivery, evidenced by hepatic or extra-hepatic teratomas and iPSC in the blood. Notably, we accomplished full in vivo reprogramming without c-Myc. Most iPSC generated in vitro or in vivo showed transcriptionally silent, intronic or intergenic vector integration, likely reflecting the increased host genome accessibility during reprogramming. Our approach crucially advances in vivo reprogramming technology, and concurrently facilitates investigations into the mechanisms and consequences of AAV persistence.