4Pi microscopy with linear fluorescence excitation
Authors: Lang MC, Engelhardt J, Hell SW
CellNetworks People: Hell Stefan
Journal: Opt Lett. 2007 Feb 1;32(3):259-61

Practical 4Pi microscopy has so far exclusively relied on multiphoton excitation of fluorescence, because the nonlinear suppression of contributions from higher-order sidelobes was mandatory for unambiguous axial superresolution. We show that novel lenses of 74 degrees semiaperture angle enable biological 4Pi microscopy with regular one-photon fluorescence excitation, thus increasing the signal and reducing system complexity and cost. An axial resolution of 95 nm, corresponding to a more than fourfold improvement over confocal microscopy, is verified in the imaging of microtubules in mammalian cells.